Пстронг Дорота, доктор, факультет образования, Жешувский университет (RP, 35-959 Rzeszów, ul. Jałowego, 24), email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Родионов Михаил Алексеевич, доктор педагогических наук, профессор, заведующий кафедрой алгебры и методики обучения математике и информатике, Пензенский государственный университет (Россия, г. Пенза, ул. Красная, 40), email@example.com
Background. The progressive social and economic changes occurring in our country in the period of the last twenty years are accompanied as well by the intensification of destructive phenomena, both in the sphere of entire society and in that of an individual alike. Criminological statistics indicate the existence of crime, delinquency and the different forms of pathological behavior, which are constantly remaining at a high level. These ought to be treated as the symptom of the disorganization of society connected with the structural transformation which is still in progress. These phenomena encompass within their scope different social categories, and children and school attending youths do not remain unaffected by them. Therefore, the goal of the article is to present macro-social conditions of educational problems that should be considered external reasons for pathological behaviours of students as well as internal determinants of this type of phenomena that result from an improper organization of school work.
Materials and methods. The article is strictly theoretical, but includes empirical research conducted by Polish authors and axiological concepts that present diverse trends and views on goals, tasks and functions of educational institutions. The author also relies on her own research conducted among schoolchildren using the diagnostic survey method. The research indicates a significant intensification of various forms of destructive behaviour considered a substitution form of meeting psychosocial needs deprived in the school environment.
Results. Contemporary school is an environment which is dehumanized and extremely formalized, in which a school attendee frequently remains anonymous, alienated, deprived of the possibility to establish individual, personal contacts both with their peers and with a teacher alike. Socially-destructive behaviors are becoming, therefore, the substitute manner of adjustment to the dysfunctional environment of school. The helplessness of school facing the increasing phenomena of pathological behaviors is manifesting itself in the form of the reaction of defense systems characteristic for “the victim syndrome” described in the literature of the subject. In this case, however, it is an inefficient institution that is becoming a victim, being put in the situation in which it faces contradictory expectations, acting in the conditions which are not conducive to attaining its statutory objectives.
Conclusions. Not only has contemporary Polish school failed to develop the effective system of counteracting destructive phenomena, but it has also itself become one of the pathogenic factors. The sole effective manner of counteracting pathology in school seems to be constituted by the restitution of its activity in the field of upbringing, based upon democratic (rather than the liberal ones) interpersonal relationships, a clearly-determined system of requirements, objectives and values. A substantial degree of differences in opinions widespread in contemporary trends in pedagogical science, the competition between conservative and postmodernistliberal tendencies make it impossible to develop a homogeneous system of upbringing based upon the common ideological assumptions. Therefore, what is becoming a challenge for the reformers of Polish education, is creating the conditions for developing pluralistic upbringing curricula making it possible to create pro-social attitudes, democratic, while simultaneously taking under consideration the diversified social needs and expectations within the scope of activity in the field of upbringing.
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